LOGO FIDIAS NARANJA Y NEGRO 2021
16/03/2017 0 Comments

Tengo una pesadilla: me lesiono por octava vez el bíceps femoral.

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

La peor pesadilla que he tenido últimamente es que mi bíceps femoral vuelve a sufrir una distensión o rotura fibrilar.  Pero lo peor es que cuando estoy despierto siento que hay muchas probabilidades de hacerse realidad,  mi vida deportiva se ha convertido en una obsesión con los isquiotibiales.

Si no queremos tener esta pesadilla, debemos crear las adaptaciones necesarias para que no se vuelva a repetir el mismo cuadro. En una entrada anterior (¿que hago con mi séptima lesión del bíceps femoral?)  veíamos como debe ser la recuperación de una lesión isquiotibial por distensión o rotura fibrilar. Pero el trabajo preventivo es algo mucho mas amplio. En la primera entrada de esta serie (¡Que alguien me explique porqué me he lesionado por seṕtima vez el bíceps femoral!) explicamos los factores de riesgo, donde la fatiga por sobreuso es uno de ellos; y tenemos que saber que hay varios factores que van a estar provocando un sobreuso isquiotibial, por lo que si no queremos una recaída, tendremos que mejorarlos.

 

La debilidad de los sinergistas:

Debilidad glútea en la extensión de cadera. Todo un clásico en el mundo del entrenamiento y la rehabilitación.

diapositiva3

Debilidad abdominal y glútea en la retroversión pélvica:  Los músculos de la cara posterior del muslo son extremadamente susceptibles de un síndrome de sobreuso cuando son dominantes debido a una ejecución inadecuada de los músculos abdominales y del glúteo mayor. La musculatura que debe oponerse a la anteversión de la pelvis son los abdominales por arriba, y el glúteo mayor y los isquiotibiales por abajo. En presencia de unos glúteos débiles, los isquiotibiales tomarán el protagonismo formando un par de fuerza con los abdominales.


diapositiva2

diapositiva8

 

Anteversión pélvica: El acortamiento/rigidez de los flexores de cadera provocan una limitación al movimiento de extensión de cadera y al de retroversión pélvica. Se ha encontrado asociado a posteriores lesiones de isquiotibiales5,41,50,88. Por cada grado de acortamiento de los flexores de cadera en el Test de Thomas modificado, el riesgo de lesión en los isquiotibiales incrementa en un 15%42.

El acortamiento de los flexores de cadera provoca la anteversión pélvica. Esta posición proyecta el tronco hacia delante con respecto a la base de sustentación. La anteversión será mayor o menor en función del ratio de acortamiento entre flexores de cadera e isquiotibiales. En deportistas de fútbol, rugby y fútbol americano, tan sólo un 26.5% mantenían la alineación postural lumbar correcta. El 51.9% presentaban un aumento de la lordosis. El índice de lesión muscular (en general, no sólo de isquiotibiales) entre el grupo con desalineación lumbar fue del 67% por sólo un 36% del grupo con columna lumbar correctamente alineada. Una línea postural correcta pasa por el maleolo del tobillo, la rodilla, la cadera, el hombro y la oreja87.

 

Síndromes de alteración del movimiento que provocan sobreuso isquiotibial:

Síndrome de extensión de cadera con extensión de rodilla:  

  • Dominancia de los isquiotibiales sobre el glúteo mayor en la extensión de cadera, sobre el cuádriceps en la extensión de rodilla cuando el pie está fijo, y del bíceps femoral sobre los rotadores externos.
  • Al subir un escalón o levantarse de una silla la rodilla realiza un desplazamiento posterior, cuando se debería observar que está fija y es el cuerpo el que se desplaza hacia delante.
  • En bipedestación la cadera puede estar en extensión y rotación externa, y la rodilla en hiperextensión.
  • Estas personas suelen tener sobrecarga en los isquiotibiales y debilidad de los cuádriceps  (son sinergistas en los movimientos de triple extensión,  (ver: La Paradoja de Lombard)

diapositiva1

Síndrome de rotación lateral de la cadera:

  • Dominancia de los rotadores externos sobre los internos.
  • Participación insuficiente de los músculos rotadores laterales intrínsecos de la cadera: piramidal, obturadores, géminos y cuadrado crural. El bíceps femoral es dominante.
  • Puede haber distensiones isquiotibiales y síndrome glúteo profundo.
  • Camina con la cadera en rotación externa.
  • A nivel estructural puede haber retrotorsión femoral.
  • Estas personas suelen tener sobrecarga en los isquiotibiales

Estas personas necesitan trabajar los rotadores internos para corregir este desequilibrio entre antagonistas, y la rotación externa con la musculatura más proximal,  para evitar que el bíceps femoral tenga que asumir esa acción.

diapositiva5

diapositiva4

 

A veces sueño con un mundo mejor, donde todo el mundo se quiere, las personas cuidan la naturaleza, ya no hay hambre en el mundo, …. Y mi bíceps femoral no se vuelve a lesionar. Es maravilloso sentir que todo va bien. La curva longitud-tensión me confirma que mi bíceps femoral está preparado para frenar las aceleraciones de mi pierna, y el fortalecimiento de los sinergistas le está quitando el exceso de trabajo que antes tenía. Pero lo mejor es que siento que es real, empiezo a darlo todo en los entrenamientos y se me olvida la tensión en la parte posterior del muslo. Por fin me siento tranquilo, creo que no volveré a tener esta pesadilla.

 

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:

  1. Ali K, Leland JM. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 2012 Apr;31(2):263-72.

  2. Arnason A, Andersen TE, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2008: 18 (1): 40–48.

  3. Arnason A, Tenga A, Engebretsen L, & Bahr, R. (2004). A prospective video-based analysis of injury situations in elite male football: football incident analysis. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 32, 1459–65.

  4. Arnason, A., Andersen, T.E., Holme, I., Engebretsen, L., & Bahr, R. (2007). Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science in Sports.

  5. Arnason, A., Sigurdsson, S.B., Gudmundsson, A., Holme, I., Engebretsen, L. & Bahr, R. (2004). Risk Factors for Injuries in Football. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 32, 5

  6. Askling C, Karlsson J, Thorstensson A. Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2003;13:244–50.

  7. Askling, C, Karlsson, J, & Thorstensson, A. (2003). Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 13: 244–250.

  8. Bennell K. Tully E. Harvey N. (1999). Does the toe-touch test predict hamstring injury in Australian Rules footballers? Australian Journal of Physiotheraphy. 45 (2): 103-9

  9. Bennell K., Wajswelner H., Lew P., Schall-Riaucour, A., Leslie, S., Plant, D. & Cirone, J. (1998). Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian Rules footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 32 (4), 309-14

  10. Bourne MN, Opar DA, Williams MD, Al Najjar A, Shield AJ. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Jun;26(6):666-74.

  11. Bourne MN, Williams MD, Opar DA, Al Najjar A, Kerr GK, Shield AJ. Impact of exercise selection on hamstring muscle activation. Br J Sports Med. 2016 May 13. pii: bjsports-2015-095739.

  12. Brockett, C.L., Morgan, D.L. & Proske, U. (2001). Human hamstring muscles adapt to eccentric exercise by changing optimum length. Medicine & Science of Sports & Exercise 2001; 33, 783–790.

  13. Brooks JHM, Fuller CW, Kemp SPT, Reddin DB. Incidence, risk, and prevention of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med 2006: 34 (8): 1297–1306.

  14. Brughelli, M. & Cronin, J. (2008). Preventing Hamstring Injuries in Sport. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 30(1), 55-64.

  15. Camic CL, Kovacs AJ, Enquist EA, McLain TA, Hill EC. Muscle activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings during incremental running. Muscle Nerve. 2015 Dec;52(6):1023-9.

  16. Caplan, N., Rogers, R., Parr, M.K. & Hayes, P.R. (2009). The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Static Stretch Training OnRunning Mechanics. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(4), 1175–1180

  17. Clark, R., Bryant, A., Culgan, J., and Hartley, B. (2005). The effects of hamstring strength training on dynamic jumping performance and isokinetic strength parameters. Physical Theraphy in Sport 6: 67–73.

  18. Chen CH, Chen TC, Jan MH, Lin JJ. Acute effects of static active or dynamic active stretching on eccentric-exercise-induced hamstring muscle damage.I nt J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015 Apr;10(3):346-52.

  19. Ciacci, S, Di Michele, R, Fantozzi, S, and Merni, F. Assessment of cinematic asymemetry for reduction of hamstring injury risk. Int J Athl Ther Train 18: 18-23, 2013.

  20. Comin J, Malliaras P, Baquie P, et al. Return to competitive play after hamstring injuries involving disruption of the central tendon. Am J Sports Med 2013;41:111–15.

  21. Connell DA, Schneider-Kolsky ME, Hoving JL, et al. Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:975–84.

  22. Croisier, J. (2004). Factors associated with recurrent hamstring injuries. Sports Medicine. 34: 681-695

  23. Croisier, J.L., Ganteaume, S., Binet, J., Genty, M. & Ferret, J.M. (2008). Strength Imbalances and Prevention of Hamstring Injury in Professional Soccer Players. A Prospective Study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(8), 1469-75.

  24. Cross KM, Gurka KK, Conaway M, Ingersoll C. Hamstring strain incidence between genders and sports in NCAA Athletics. Athl Train Sports Health Care. 2010;2:124-130.

  25. Cross KM, Gurka KK, Saliba S, Conaway M, Hertel J. Comparison of hamstring strain injury rates between male and female intercollegiate soccer athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(4):742-748.

  26. Dalton SL, Kerr ZY, Dompier TP. Epidemiology of Hamstring Strains in 25 NCAA Sports in the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 Academic Years. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2671-9.

  27. Daly C, Persson UM, Twycross-Lewis R, Woledge RC, Morrissey D. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Apr;26(4):413-20.

  28. De Smet AA, Best TM. MR imaging of the distribution and location of acute hamstring injuries in athletes. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;174:393–9.

  29. De Visser, H.M., Reijman, M., Heijboer, M.P. & Bos, P.K. (2012). Risk factors of recurrent hamstring injuries:a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 46:124–130. doi:10.1136/124 bjsports-2011-090317

  30. Duhig S, Shield AJ, Opar D, Gabbett TJ, Ferguson C, Williams M. Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Dec;50(24):1536-1540.

  31. Ebben, W.P., Long, N.J. Pawlowski, Z.D., Chmielewski, L.M., Clewien, R.W. & Jensen, R.L. (2010). Using Squat Repetition Maximum Testing To Determine Hamstring Resistance Training Exercise Loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 24(2)/293–299.

  32. Ekstrand, J, Hagglund, M, and Walden, M. Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). Am J Sports Med 39: 1226–1232, 2011

  33. Ekstrand J, Healy JC, Waldén M, et al. Hamstring muscle injuries in professional football: the correlation of MRI findings with return to play. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:112–17.

  34. Ekstrand J, Lee JC, Healy JC. MRI findings and return to play in football: a prospective analysis of 255 hamstring injuries in the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study.Br J Sports Med 2016;50:738–743.

  35. Ekstrand J, Waldén M, Hägglund M. Hamstring injuries have increased by 4% annually in men ’s professional football, since 2001: a 13-year longitudinal analysis of the UEFA Elite Club injury study. Br J Sports Med 2016;50: 731–737.

  36. Emami M, Arab AM, Ghamkhar L. THE ACTIVITY PATTERN OF THE LUMBO‐PELVIC MUSCLES DURING PRONE HIP EXTENSION IN ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT HAMSTRING STRAIN INJURY.International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2014;9(3):312-319.

  37. Foreman, T.K., Addy, T., Baker, S., Burns, J., Hill, N. & Madden, T. (2006). Prospective studies into the causation of hamstring injuries in sport: a systematic review. Physical Theraphy in Sport. 7, 101–9.

  38. Freckleton, G. & Pizzari, T. (2013). Risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury in sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47, 351–358. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090664

  39. Freckleton, G., Cook, J. & Pizzari, T. (2013). The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 0, 1–5. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092356

  40. Fyfe JJ, Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013: 23 (3): 523–530.

  41. Gabbe BJ, Finch CF, Bennell KL, & Wajswerner, H. (2005). Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39:106–10.

  42. Gabbe BJ. Bennell KL, Finch CF. et al. (2006). Predictors of hamstring injury at the elite level of Australian football. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 6 (1), 7-13

  43. Gabbe, B., Branson, R., & Bennell, K. (2006). A pilot randomised controlled trial of eccentric exercise to prevent hamstring injuries in community-level Australian football. J Sci Med Sport 9: 103–109

  44. Gabbett TJ, Ullah S. Relationship between running loads and soft-tissue injury in elite team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26:953–60.

  45. Gibbs NJ, Cross TM, Cameron M, et al. The accuracy of MRI in predicting recovery and recurrence of acute grade one hamstring muscle strains within the same season in Australian rules football players. J Sci Med Sport 2004;7:248–58.

  46. Goode AP, Reiman MP, Harris L, et al. Eccentric training for prevention of hamstring injuries may depend on intervention compliance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:349–56.

  47. Hägglund M. Walden M, Ekstrand J. (2006). Previous injury as a risk factor for injury in elite football: a prospective study over two consecutive seasons. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 40 (9), 767-72

  48. Hägglund M. Walden M, Ekstrand J. (2012). Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Muscle Injury in Professional Soccer. The UEFA Injury Study. The American Journal of Sport Medicine. 41(2), 327-35.

  49. Heiderscheit, B.C., Hoerth, D.M., Chumanov, E.S., Swanson, S.C., Brian J. Thelen, B.J. & Thelen, D.G. (2005). Identifying the time of occurrence of a hamstring strain injury during treadmill running: a case study. Clinical Biomechanics. 20, 1072-8.

  50. Henderson G, Barnes CA, & Portas MD. Factors associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury in English Premier League soccer players. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport.2009; 13,397-402.

  51. Holcomb, W.R., Rubley, M.D., Lee, H.J. & Guadagnoli, M.A. (2007). Effect Of Hamstring-Emphasized Resistance Training On Hamstring:Quadriceps Strength Ratios. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(1), 41–47

  52. Hulin BT, Gabbett TJ, Blanch P, et al. Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers. Br J Sports Med 2013;48:708–12.

  53. Hulin BT, Gabbett TJ, Lawson DW, et al. The acute: chronic workload ratio predicts injury: high chronic workload May decrease injury risk in elite rugby league players. Br J Sports Med 2015;50:231–6.

  54. Iga J, Fruer CS, Deighan M, et al. ‘Nordic’ hamstrings exercise—engagement characteristics and training responses. Int J Sports Med 2012;33:1000–4.

  55. Lee, M.J.C., Reid, S.L., Elliot, B.C. & Lloyd, D.G. (2009). Running Biomechanics and Lower Limb Strength Associated with Prior Hamstring Injury. Medicine & Science of Sports & Exercise. 41(10):1942-51.

  56. McAllister MJ, Hammond KG, Schilling BK, Ferreria LC, Reed JP, Weiss LW. Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun;28(6):1573-80.

  57. Morin J-B, Gimenez P, Edouard P, et al. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production.Frontiers in Physiology. 2015;6:404. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00404.

  58. Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. Hamstring strain injuries factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Med 2012: 42: 209–226.

  59. Opar DA, Williams MD, Timmins RG, Dear NM, Shield AJ. Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013(a): 23 (3): 696–703.

  60. Opar DA, Williams MD, Timmins RG, Dear NM, Shield AJ. Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Am J Sports Med 2013(b): 41 (1): 116–125.

  61. Opar DA, Williams MD, Timmins RG, et al. Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015;47:857–65.

  62. Orchard J., Marsden J., Lord S. & Gatlick, D. (1997). Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 25(1): 81-5.

  63. Orishimo KF, McHugh MP. Effect of an eccentrically biased hamstring strengthening home program on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship. J Strength Cond Res. 2015 Mar;29(3):772-8.

  64. Petersen J, Thorborg K, Nielsen MB, et al. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men’s soccer: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 2011;39:2296–303.

  65. Prior, M., Guerin, M., Grimmer, K. (2009). An evidence-based approach to hamstring strain injury: a systematic review of the literature. Sports Health. 1, 154–64.

  66. Proske, U., Morgan, D., Brockett, C., and Percival, P. (2004). Identifying athletes at risk of hamstring strains and how to protect them. Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. 31: 546–550.

  67. Rey E, Paz-Domínguez Á, Porcel-Almendral D, Paredes-Hernández V, Barcala-Furelos R, Abelairas-Gómez C. Effects of a 10-Week Nordic Hamstring Exercise and Russian Belt Training on Posterior Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Elite Junior Soccer Players. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]

  68. Sayers, A. & Sayers B.E. (2008). The Nordic Eccentric Hamstring Exercise for Injury Prevention in Soccer Players. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 30(4), 56

  69. Schache AG, Wrigley TV, Baker R, Pandy, M.G. (2009). Biomechanical response to hamstring muscle strain injury. Gait Posture. 29, 332-8.

  70. Schache, A.G. (2012). Eccentric hamstring muscle training can prevent hamstring injuries in soccer players. Journal of Physioteraphy. 58(1), 58.

  71. Schache, A.G., Dorn, T.W. Blanch, P.D. Brown, N.A.T. & Pandy, M.G. (2012). Mechanics of the Human Hamstring Muscles during Sprinting. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 44(4), 647-58.

  72. Schmitt, B., Tyler, T. & McHugh, M. (2012). Hamstring Injury Rehabilitation And Prevention Of Reinjury Using Engthened State Eccentric Training: A New Concept. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 7( 3), 333

  73. Schuermans J, Van Tiggelen D, Danneels L, et al. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus: team mates of competitors? New insights into hamstring injury mechanisms in male football players: a muscle functional MRI study. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1599-1606.

  74. Schuermans J, Van Tiggelen D, Danneels L, Witvrouw E. Susceptibility to Hamstring Injuries in Soccer: A Prospective Study Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Am J Sports Med. 2016 May;44(5):1276-85.

  75. Sherry, MA and Best, TM. A compariason of 2 rehabilitation programs in the treatment of acute hamstring strains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 34: 116–25, 2004.

  76. Sherry, M.A., Best, T.M., Silder, A., Thelen, D.G. & Heiderscheit, B.C. (2011). Hamstring Strains: Basic Science and Clinical Research Applications for Preventing the Recurrent Injury. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 33(3), 56

  77. Silder A, Heiderscheit B, Thelen D, Enright T, Tuite M. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Skeletal Radiol 2008: 37: 1101–1109.

  78. Small,K., Mcnaughton, L.Greig, M. & Lovell, R. (2009). Effect Of Timing Of Eccentric Hamstring Strengthening Exercises During Soccer Training: Implications For Muscle Fatigability. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(4), 1077–1083

  79. Sole, G., Milosavljevic, S., Nicholson, H. & Sullivan, S.J. (2011). Selective Strength Loss and Decreased Muscle Activity in Hamstring Injury. Journal Of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 41(5), 354

  80. Sugiura Y. Saito T. Sakuraba K, Sakuma, K & Suzuki, E. (2008). Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters. Journal of Orthopaedic Sports Physical Theraphy. 38 (8): 457-64

  81. Thelen, D, Chumanov, E.S., Hoerth, D.M., Best, T.M., Swanson, S.C., Li, L., Young, M & Heiderscheit, B.C. (2005a). Hamstring muscle kinematics during treadmill sprinting. Medicine & Science of Sports & Exercise. 37 (1): 108–114, 2005.

  82. Thorborg, K. (2012). Why hamstring eccentrics are hamstring essentials. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 46(7), 463.

  83. Tsaklis P, Malliaropoulos N, Mendiguchia J, Korakakis V, Tsapralis K, Pyne D, Malliaras P. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015 Jun 26;6:209-17.

  84. Van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C., van de Port, I.G.L. Vereijken, A.J. & Backx F.J.G. (2013). Risk Factors for Hamstring Injuries in Male Soccer Players: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 23, 253–262 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01487.x

  85. van der Horst N, Smits DW, Petersen J, et al. The preventive effect of the Nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 2015;43:1316–23.

  86. Vorhees, R. (2005). Open-Chain Hamstring Deceleration Exercise. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 27(5), 75-77

  87. Watson, A.W. (1995). Sports injuries in footballers related to defects of posture and body mechanics. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness. 35, 289-94.

  88. Witvrouw, E., Danneels, L., Asselman, P., D’Have, T., & Cambier, D. (2003). Muscle Flexibility as a Risk Factor for Developing Muscle Injuries in Male Professional Soccer Players. A Prospective Study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), 41-46

  89. Woods C, Hawkins RD, Maltby S, et al. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries. Br J Sports Med 2004;38:36–41.

  90. Worrell, TW. Factors associated with hamstring injuries. An approach to treatment and preventative measures. Sports Med 17: 338-45, 1994.

  91. Yamamoto T. (1993). Relationship between hamstring strains and leg muscle strength: a follow-up study of collegiate track and field athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness. 33(2), 194-9.

  92. Yeung SS, Suen AM, Yeung EW. (2009). A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43 (8): 589-94

  93. Zakas A. (2006). Bilateral isokinetic peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles in professional soccer players with dominance on one or both two sides. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness. 46(1), 28-35.

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_custom_heading text=»Tengo una pesadilla: me lesiono por octava vez el bíceps femoral.» font_container=»tag:p|font_size:30|text_align:left|color:%231e1e1e» google_fonts=»font_family:Open%20Sans%3A300%2C300italic%2Cregular%2Citalic%2C600%2C600italic%2C700%2C700italic%2C800%2C800italic|font_style:600%20bold%20italic%3A600%3Aitalic»][ultimate_spacer height=»30″ height_on_tabs=»15″ height_on_tabs_portrait=»15″ height_on_mob_landscape=»15″ height_on_mob=»15″][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][ultimate_spacer height=»20″ height_on_tabs=»10″ height_on_tabs_portrait=»10″ height_on_mob_landscape=»10″ height_on_mob=»10″][vc_custom_heading text=»CURSOS RELACIONADOS» font_container=»tag:p|font_size:22|text_align:left|color:%23d36200″ google_fonts=»font_family:Open%20Sans%3A300%2C300italic%2Cregular%2Citalic%2C600%2C600italic%2C700%2C700italic%2C800%2C800italic|font_style:600%20bold%20italic%3A600%3Aitalic»][ultimate_spacer height=»20″ height_on_tabs=»10″ height_on_tabs_portrait=»10″ height_on_mob_landscape=»10″ height_on_mob=»10″][dt_portfolio_carousel dis_posts_total=»» posts_offset=»0″ content_alignment=»center» image_sizing=»proportional» image_border_radius=»3px» image_scale_animation_on_hover=»disabled» image_hover_bg_color=»disabled» slides_on_wide_desk=»3″ item_space=»20″ link_lead=»follow_link» post_date=»n» post_category=»n» post_author=»n» post_comments=»n» post_content=»off» read_more_button=»off» show_link=»n» show_zoom=»n» show_details=»n» project_icon_border_width=»0px» project_icon_color=»#ffffff» project_icon_color_hover=»#ffffff» arrow_bg_width=»36x» arrow_border_width=»0px» r_arrow_icon_paddings=»0px 0px 0px 0px» r_arrow_v_offset=»0px» l_arrow_icon_paddings=»0px 0px 0px 0px» l_arrow_v_offset=»0px» category=»1286, 2160″][vc_separator border_width=»2″][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Leave A Comment