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10/12/2020 0 Comments

¿PORQUÉ SE ROMPE EL SUPRAESPINOSO CON LA EDAD?

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Es curioso que el supraespinoso tenga unos niveles de daños tan exagerados en edades avazandas, concretamente en personas por encima de 80 años el 80% presenta roturas en el manguito, ver (La eppidemia del hombro: el síndrome subacromial). Entre los factores que favorecen la aparición del síndrome subacromial tenemos uno que está muy relacionado con la degeneración que se asocia a la edad, la hipovascularidad. Y un grupo de investigadores han desarrollado una teoría que trata de explicar el mecanismo general que produce esa degeneración con tanta frecuencia, se trata de la TEORÍA DE FIRAT.

Con la Evolución de la especie, al pasar de la marcha cuadrúpeda a la bipedestación, el ancestro del ser humano tuvo que modificar sus apoyos, convirtiendo el miembro superior en una extremidad en suspensión destinada a la prensión en lugar de un miembro sometido a la presión. Los cambios anatómicos en la escápula, en la orientación de la cabeza humeral y en las funciones musculares han alterado la biomecánica del hombro, que quizá no está todavía completamente adaptado a todos los movimientos que se esperan de él19,21,57.

Al estar supendido el miembro superior, esto provoca un aumento de la fuerza de la gravedad21. La influencia de la gravedad a lo largo de la vida va produciendo un aumento progresivo de la longitud de las sarcómeras del supraespinoso, lo que conlleva un descenso de la microvascularidad por estrechamiento de los capilares. La longitud óptima de un sarcómera es 2.6µm (micrometros)41,42, y cuando aumenta por encima de 2.9µm, se compromete el flujo sanguíneo33,50,57, imaginad un tubo elástico que estiramos y reducimos su diámetro; y el músculo del cuerpo humano con la longitud de sarcómera más grande es el supraespinoso con 3,23µm.

Los dolores del hombro pueden tener un origen muscular a causa de una actividad excesiva55. Podrían vincularse a la presencia de las «fibras de Cenicienta» descritas por Hagg, sobre todo en los trapecios superiores27. Estas fibras, cuyo nombre indica que son «las primeras en levantarse y las últimas en acostarse», estarían continuamente en acción pero con un nivel de actividad muy bajo

Atendiendo a los dos últimos factores que influyen en la hipovascularidad (La evolución de la especie y la gravedad), que son quizás los grandes olvidados cuando se explica este síndrome, se nos ocurre una solución infalible para no formar parte de la gran Epidemia mundial del hombro:


Es tan fácil como irnos al espacio o dejar de ser humanos. Pero para los que no podemos hacer ninguna de esas dos cosas, siempre nos queda la opción de aumentar el espacio subacromial, trabajar excéntricamente el supraespinoso, mejorar la discinesia escapular, reducir el DRIG,…. ¡A cuidar esos hombros! Que vamos a vivir muchos años, y los hombros también merecen disfrutar de la jubilación.

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