LOGO FIDIAS NARANJA Y NEGRO 2021
22/02/2017 0 Comments

Y EL ÓSCAR PARA EL MEJOR EXTENSOR DE CADERA ES PARA…

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Cuando hablamos de extensión de cadera como una de las películas top en taquilla, hablamos en primera instancia de glúteo mayor y de isquiotibiales como actores principales… aunque, el protagonista ideal debe ser el glúteo mayor, no hay profesional de la salud que no tenga esto clarísimo; sin embargo, en muchas personas los isquiotibiales se han convertido en los protagonistas, eclipsando la actuación del glúteo mayor…. Aspiran a llevarse el óscar al mejor actor en la peli de la extensión de cadera


Es cierto que existen otros extensores de cadera, pero entre los diferentes papeles secundarios, tenemos al aductor mayor, que lo llamamos cariñosamente el “primo” de los isquiotibiales, por la enorme cantidad de similitudes entre ellos. Si el patrón de activación muscular a la hora de extender la cadera es comandado por los isquiotibiales que se activan antes y más que los glúteos tendremos lo que Janda denomina la “dominancia sinergista” sobre el agonista principal42,52. Esta debilidad también puede implicar una mayor activación del aductor mayor.

Los principales mecanismos que alteran la ratio/glúteo mayor/isquiotibiales son dos:

1. Una alteración de la postura como es una excesiva anteversión pélvica puede afectar a la relación longitud-tensión del glúteo mayor reduciendo su capacidad estabilizadora41. La postura en anteversión está asociada a una tensión excesiva y limitada tolerancia al estiramiento de los potentes flexores de cadera, lo que elonga al glúteo mayor reduciendo su ventaja mecánica38. Así, las personas con una restricción en la movilidad en extensión de cadera medido con el Test de Thomas Modificado tienen una menor ratio de activación Glúteo Mayor/Bíceps femoral durante la fase de descenso de un squat (Restringido=0,88 y Normal=2,28)36. Uno de los motivos que produce una reducida activación y fuerza del glúteo mayor es la cantidad de tiempo que pasamos sentados20,35.

2. El dolor en la zona lumbar o pélvica también es un potente inhibidor del glúteo mayor, retrasando y disminuyendo su activación; produciendo como mecanismo compensatorio una sobreactivación isquiotibial y lumbar4,5,11,32,50. Esta inhibición es un mecanismo protector a corto plazo ya que trata de evitar los movimientos explosivos potencialmente lesivos en caso de daño previo. Por otro lado la inflamación articular también produce una inhibición artrogénica11, lo que se ha comprobado en estudios en los que se ha simulado un estado inflamatorio introduciendo líquido en la Cápsula articular de la cadera, con la consiguiente inhibición del glúteo mayor.

El problema es que una alteración de la ratio glúteo mayor/isquiotibiales en favor de los «isquios» se ha correlacionado con multitud de patologías y experiencias de dolor…. aunque esta relación es compleja y debemos ser muy cautos a la hora de llagar a conclusiones (Recomendamos la lectura: Las lesiones son más complejas que un tres en raya). Vamos a destinar una entrada en exclusiva para ver toda esta problemática asociada a la inhibición del glúteo mayor.

El glúteo mayor tiene un currículum envidiable, hace muchísimas cosas y las hace todas bien, ¡vaya maravilla! También dedicaremos una entrada de blog a explicar todo lo que nos aporta el glúteo mayor con todo lujo de detalles.

Si este año no se lleva el Óscar a mejor actor principal el glúteo mayor, tenemos un problema. Lo primero que tenemos que ver es si en la película le han dado un papel secundario, porque si es así, era imposible que se llevase el Óscar. Asegúrate que en su siguiente película tenga un papel principal y sobre todo que haga un gran trabajo.  Si es así, ya sabes a quien le darán el próximo Óscar a mejor actor en la extensión de cadera.

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