Los glúteos son una musculatura primordial que se ha desarrollado de manera muy importante para adpotar la postura erguida y conseguir la bipedestación del ser humano en su evolución durante miles de años. Para la carrera todavía se precisa una mayor participación de los glúteos ya que ésta se realiza con una sucesión de apoyos sobre un solo pie. La estabilidad que requiere la cadera y en consecuencia todo el miembro inferior es muy alta y los glúteos comandarán esta estabilidad en el apoyo. La acción de los glúteos en este sentido es imprescindible para un resultado seguro y eficiente.
En un cuerpo humano que funciona con normalidad, el glúteo mayor es el músculo más grande y fuerte;  La fuerza de extensión de cadera es imprescindible en multitud de acciones de la vida diaria, y el mundo del entrenamiento tiene una obsesión lógica por este movimiento….. Es comprensible si te dicen que mejora el rendimiento de un salto vertical o un sprint, que puede mejorar una lumbalgia crónica, que aumenta la estabilidad de la articulación sacroilíaca, que mejora la estética de la imprescindible región glútea a la hora de ligar….. y para colmo hasta ha ganado un Óscar al mejor extensor de cadera (Ver: Y el Óscar al mejor extensor de cadera es para…).

¿Pero cómo consigue realmente todo esto?  Tenemos la suerte de que acaba de dejar su currículum en la empresa, así que nos podría venir muy bien incorporarlo a nuestra plantilla, vamos a ver su currículum para conocerlo más en profundidad y valorar su contratación.


EL glúteo mayor tiene tres funciones básicas3:

1. Estabilizador local:

• Estabilizador segmental de la columna lumbar por su conexión con erectores espinales y fascia toraco-lumbar47,49.
• Estabilizador de la articulación sacroilíaca mediante compresión (su dirección de compresión)17,28,46.
• Estabilizador lumbomosacro por cocontracción de forma conjunta con el psoas5.
• Estabilizador de la cabeza femoral gracias a su inserción relativamente cercana al centro de giro42.
• Estabilizador de la rodilla en extensión a través de su inserción en la cintilla iliotibial: Si el glúteo mayor no proporciona la tensión a la banda iliotibial durante la fase de apoyo para estabilizar la rodilla, el TFL y el vasto lateral estarán «obligados» a compensarlo, sobreactivándose y creando un potencial desequilibrio muscular.


2. Estabilizador global:

• Controla excéntricamente la inclinación anterior del tronco y la rotación mediante la cocontracción con el dorsal ancho contralateral
• Estabilización de la pelvis en el apoyo monopodal previniendo la aducción y rotación interna actuando de forma conjunta con el resto de glúteos (medio y menor).
• Funademtal para evitar lo que llamamos (el descarrilamiento del tren inferior). Control del valgo dinámico de rodilla (Ver: El descarrilamiento del tren inferior). Una mayor fuerza del glúteo mayor redujo el valgo de rodilla en el descenso de un escalón15 y en la recepción de un salto16. Una mayor fuerza explosiva de extensión de cadera reduce el valgo de rodilla7,8.

3. Movilizador Global:

• Potente extensor y rotador externo de cadera. El glúteo mayor se activa mucho durante los sprint2,10,22,30,43. Y el rango de mayor activación es el final de la extensión de cadera55.
• Aunque es rotador interno cuando la cadera se encuentra en flexión9.
• Mientras las fibras superiores actúan como abductoras, las inferiores son aductoras





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